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Two men sitting to play chess, Segment targeting Positioning STPIn today’s competitive marketplace, understanding your customers’ diverse needs and preferences is vital for successful product development.
Segmentation, targeting, and positioning (STP) are core marketing strategies that can significantly improve your product development process. 

STP allows businesses to identify, connect with, and satisfy specific customer groups effectively. In this article, we will explore what STP is and how to use it to enhance your product development efforts.

Understanding STP

STP is a strategic framework used by businesses to:

  • Divide a heterogeneous market into smaller, distinct segments based on shared characteristics or needs (Segmentation).
  • Select one or more of these segments as your primary focus, where your product will meet the most resonance and success (Targeting).
  • Develop a unique and compelling brand image for your product within the chosen segments to stand out in the minds of your target customers (Positioning).

Now, let’s delve into how you can implement these strategies to improve your product development.

Segmentation: Know Your Market

Paper showing psychographic segmentation in pie chart

  • Market Research: Start with comprehensive market research to gain insights into customer behaviors, preferences, and pain points. This data serves as the foundation for your segmentation strategy.

Let’s take a demo brand like TechVista that is into tech support services designed to enhance the productivity and connectivity of remote workers, freelancers, and small business owners, thorough market research is crucial because it provides TechVista with valuable insights into customer behaviors, preferences, and market trends. This information forms the basis for effective segmentation.

On the other hand without market research, your business tends to make misinformed decisions. The demo brand TechVista as an example might end up targeting the wrong segments or creating products that don’t meet actual customer needs.

  • Identify Segments: Based on the research, identify potential market segments. These segments can be based on demographics (age, gender, income), psychographics (lifestyle, values), behavior (buying habits, product usage), or other relevant criteria.

Defining clear segments allows you to focus your resources and efforts effectively, tailoring your product offerings to the specific needs of each group. Failing to identify segments properly may result in generic products that don’t resonate with any particular customer group.

For example, TechVista can identify two segments in its market – “Digital Nomads” and “Small Business Owners.” These segments have distinct needs and behaviors.

  • Prioritize Segments: Evaluate and prioritize segments based on criteria such as size, growth potential, competition, and alignment with your company’s goals and capabilities.

Prioritizing segments helps you allocate resources and prioritize which segments to target first based on factors like size, growth potential, and compatibility with the company’s goals. Without prioritization, a brand may waste resources on less profitable segments or miss opportunities in more promising ones.

Example: TechVista analyzes the “Digital Nomads” segment, recognizing its rapid growth and alignment with the company’s capabilities, making it a primary focus.

  • Create Buyer Personas:  Develop detailed buyer personas for each selected segment. These personas should outline the typical customer’s characteristics, motivations, challenges, and goals. Buyer personas provide a human face to the segments, making it easier to understand and empathize with customers, and guiding product development.

Without well-defined personas, a business may lack clarity in addressing customer pain points and designing features that matter.

Example: TechVista can create personas for the “Digital Nomads” segment, detailing their age, income, preferences, and challenges, such as the need for portable tech solutions.

Targeting: Focusing on the Right Audience

A dart board signifying target

  • Evaluate Segment Fit: Assess how well your product aligns with the needs and preferences of each chosen segment. Are there any necessary modifications or customizations needed to cater to their specific requirements?

You need to ensure your products align with the specific needs of each segment. Customization may be necessary to cater to these needs. Ignoring the unique needs of a segment could result in a product that fails to gain traction in the market.

  • Set Clear Objectives:  Define specific, measurable objectives for each targeted segment. These objectives should align with your product development goals, such as sales targets or market share.

Clear objectives guide your product development efforts. They help set measurable targets for each segment. Vague or undefined objectives can lead to misaligned efforts, making it challenging to measure success.

What this can look like TechVista is setting specific objectives for the “Small Business Owners” segment, aiming to achieve a 15% market share within a year.

  • Positioning Strategy: Develop a unique positioning strategy for each segment. This strategy should highlight the distinct value your product offers to that segment and differentiate it from competitors.

Each segment should perceive your products as tailored to their unique needs. Positioning builds a brand image that resonates with the chosen segments. Inconsistent positioning can confuse customers and dilute the brand’s identity.

  • Marketing Mix Customization: Tailor the marketing mix (product, price, place, and promotion) to each segment. Customize product features, pricing strategies, distribution channels, and promotional efforts accordingly.

When you do this the marketing mix ensures that product features, pricing, distribution, and promotions align with each segment’s preferences and expectations. While a one-size-fits-all approach may lead to mismatched product offerings and marketing efforts.

An example is to customize pricing strategy, offering “Small Business Owners” flexible payment plans and bulk discounts.

Positioning: Creating a Strong Brand Image

a doll to signify a strong Image

  • Understand the Competition: Analyze how your competitors are positioned in the market. Identify gaps or opportunities that your product can capitalize on. Analyzing competitors’ positioning helps you identify opportunities to differentiate your brand and products effectively.

Ignoring the competition on the other hand can result in a brand that blends into the market without a unique value proposition.

  • Unique Selling Proposition (USP): Determine your product’s unique selling points that set it apart from competitors. Your USP should resonate with the specific needs and desires of your target segments.

A clear USP sets TechVista apart from the competition and highlights what makes its products special. Failing to articulate a unique value proposition may lead to a lack of brand distinctiveness. This could be introducing a package deal for your target or a collaboration with a third-party app to ensure ease.

  • Messaging and Communication: Craft clear and consistent messaging that conveys your product’s unique benefits to each segment. Ensure that your communication resonates with their interests and concerns.

Consistent messaging resonates with each segment and helps you establish a strong brand identity. Inconsistent or unclear messaging can confuse customers and dilute the brand’s impact.

  • Branding and Image: Build a strong brand that aligns with your positioning strategy. The product’s packaging, visual identity, and brand personality should reflect the desired positioning. A strong brand image reinforces the positioning strategy and creates recognition in the minds of customers. Inconsistent branding can lead to confusion and a lack of customer loyalty.
  • Continuous Evaluation: Regularly assess the effectiveness of your positioning strategy and make adjustments as needed to remain competitive and aligned with market changes. Regularly assessing the positioning strategy ensures that it remains effective and adaptable to market changes.

Segmentation, targeting, and positioning are not static strategies; they should evolve as market conditions change and new customer insights emerge. By applying STP principles to your product development process, you can create products that truly resonate with your target customers, meet their specific needs, and effectively compete in the marketplace. This strategic framework empowers businesses to better understand and serve their customers, ultimately leading to more successful product development and enhanced competitiveness in the market.


What is the purpose of segmentation in product development?

Segmentation in product development serves to divide a heterogeneous market into smaller, more manageable groups with shared characteristics and needs. This helps businesses tailor their products and marketing efforts to better meet the specific requirements of each segment, ultimately improving their competitiveness and customer satisfaction.

What should I do if the market changes after implementing STP strategies?

Markets are dynamic, and it’s essential to adapt. Continuously monitor customer feedback, market trends, and competitors to ensure your STP strategies remain effective. Be ready to adjust your product features, pricing, messaging, and positioning to stay aligned with evolving market conditions.

How can small businesses with limited resources use STP effectively?

As a small business, you can use STP by focusing your resources on the most promising segments that align with your capabilities. You can start by conducting cost-effective market research and gradually tailoring your products, marketing, and branding to cater to the selected segments.

What is the role of customer feedback in STP and product development?

Customer feedback is invaluable for understanding the evolving needs and preferences of different market segments. It informs product improvements, helps in positioning adjustments, and ensures that your products continue to align with customer expectations.

Can STP strategies be applied to service-based businesses as well?

Yes, STP strategies can be applied to service-based businesses. They help identify and understand the unique needs and preferences of different customer groups, allowing service providers to tailor their offerings, pricing, and messaging accordingly.

Are there any successful real-world examples of companies using STP effectively in product development?

Yes, several companies have successfully implemented STP strategies. For example, Apple targets multiple segments with its product lines, positioning the iPhone as a premium device for tech enthusiasts and professionals, while the iPad is positioned for creative and educational segments. The consistency in branding, messaging, and product features is a testament to effective STP implementation.